Connect with us

What Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia did 102 years ago when they became independent republics

Avatar

Published

on

Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia marked 102 years since the day of the creation of their states with a democratic structure – that is, independent republics.

The word ‘republic’ comes from the latin word res publica, meaning ‘public issue’. Republic is a form of government with three components:

1. The composition of state departments are either elected for a defined period of time or are formed by national representatives institutions. This role is generally carried out by parliament.

2. An elected head of state who can not pass down their authority by inheritance or in any other way other than elections in which the entire eligible population of the country is included.

3. All citizens of the republic have the same personal and political rights.

In April 1918, the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic was declared, but soon it dissolved into three separate states.

On 26 May 1918, the Georgian Democratic Republic was declared.

On 28 May 1918, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the Republic of Armenia were also declared.

Below are two sections about the achievements of these three states over the past one hundred years, and why they fell apart.

1.

The political context of the time

The beginning of the 20th century was a tragic period for the Caucasus in a number of ways.

By this time, all three countries had been part of the Russian Empire. World War I was taking place, of which a part occurred on the Turkish front.

In 1915 there was the massacre and exile of the Armenian population. Various data sources suggest that about 1.5 million Armenians died. In agreement with Armenia, international organisations and many countries are saying that these events constituted a genocide.

Two revolutions took place in Russia one right after the other. As a result, from 1917 to 1921 the Bolsheviks definitively seized power and the establishment of the communist regime began.

2.

The main achievements of the three independent republics over the 102 years since the day of their creation

Azerbaijan

The Independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was created on 28 May 1918 in Tbilisi. This took place two days after Georgia declared its withdrawal from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.

The federation was administered by the ‘Transcaucasian Sejm’. Its ‘Muslim faction’ practically became the first Azerbaijani parliament.

It was called the national council, with Mammad Amin Rasulzadeh, the head of the ‘Musavat’ (Equality) party as its leader. The chairman of the government of the first Independent Azerbaijani republic was Fatali Khan Khoyski.

The republic lasted some 23 months, until 28 April 1920. Then Baku was taken by the 11th Red Army.

A military parade in honor of the first anniversary of the Azerbaijan Republic. Photo from the National Archive of Azerbaijan.

Go to top

The four main achievements of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

1. The creation of the first parliamentary republic in the Muslim East. There were 11 parties and factions in the first parliament.

2. In the decision to create the parliament, there was much discussion about how all of the nations that inhabit Azerbaijan should have a representative. There were two Armenian factions within the parliament.

3. Women in the Islamic world first received the right to vote in Baku. The decision was made in November 1918 simultaneously with Britain, and Azerbaijan gave parity to women on this issue before a majority of European and American countries.

4. The first state university was founded on 1 September 1919 – it had four faculties at first: history, physics-maths, law and medicine.

The first dean of the university was the well-known surgeon Vasili Razumovski. Lev Landau, a theoretical physicist who would later claim a Nobel prize, studied at this university.

Armenia

The emblem and flag of the first Republic of Armenia. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Ethnography of Armenians and the History of the War for Liberation.

The first republic of Armenia was very important for the nation which had been deprived of statehood for centuries.

The achievements of the short-lived Republic of Armenia, just 2.5 years from May 1918 to December 1920, can be summarised as thus:

1. A state body was formed, a parliament elected, an army and internal state departments were also made.

2. Over this period, there were four cabinets of ministers and, accordingly, four prime ministers: Hovhannes Kajaznuni, Aleksandr Khatisyan, Hamo Ohanjanyan and Simon Vratsyan.

3. Diplomatic relations were established and embassies were opened in dozens of countries across the world, from the USA to the far east and the countries of Asia.

4. In August 1918, an official currency, the Armenian rouble, was put into circulation.

A bill from the first Republic of Armenia. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Ethnography of Armenians and the History of the War of Liberation.

Georgia

Influential Georgian political and intellectual groups did not acknowledge Soviet power which was established in Russia after the revolution of 1917.

On 19 November 1917 the first national convention took place in Tbilisi where the National Council of Georgia was elected – the government.

About half a year later, on 26 May 1918, an Act of Independence was implemented, and thus the Democratic Republic of Georgia was formed.

The Constituent Assembly announces the creation of the first Democratic Republic of Georgia. Photo from the archives of the National Library of Georgia.

Its main highlights:

1. The first democratic elections took place in Georgia on 14 February 1919. Thus the Constituent Assembly of Georgia was found, similar to that of a modern parliament. Fifteen parties took place in the elections, with six of them making it into the assembly. The first ruling party of Georgia was the Social Democratic Party.

2. The Constituent Assembly of Georgia passed the country’s first constitution. This took place on 21 February 1921. The constitution guaranteed the rights of women, religious and ethnic minorities. The death penalty was abolished.

But the first constitution lasted but four days. The Constituent Assembly of Georgia had announced its publication not with national celebrations but under threat from cannonade. The Red Army had already entered Georgian territory. On 25 February 1918, Georgia was annexed.

3. The first international relations were established with Europe after many, centuries-long unsuccessful attempts to make contact with the outside world and get around Russia. The future PM of the UK first came to independent Georgia as well as the acting minister of justice of Belgium. Germany announced itself an ally.

4. In politics, women began playing an active role in Georgia. There were five women among the 130 members of the Constituent Assembly: Minadora Orjonikidze-Toroshelidze, Eleonora Ter-Parsegova-Makhviladze, Kristina Sharashidze, Elisabel-Liza Nakashidze-Bolkvadze, Anna Sologashvili. Their signatures are on the first constitution of Georgia.

5. A court system including a supreme court was set up, in addition to a jury system.

6. Basic education became mandatory, school infrastructure began to develop.

7. Agrarian programmes were instituted as a result of which the majority of land went into the hands of the state, but the citizens were guaranteed an allotment.

3

Reasons behind the collapse of the first three independent republics

Two opinions from Azerbaijan, JAMnews exclusive.

Go to top

Political scientist Togrul Veliyev:

“After 1917, the people were interested in two issues: work and land. But Russia was interested in Baku’s oil.

“Had the government of the republic conducted agrarian reforms and passed a labour law and agreed to export oil to Russia, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic might have continued its existence.

“It would have been socialist, with a slightly religious lean.

“It was the UK that forbade the government to export oil to Russia. And that’s why the 11th Red Army came marching in to Baku in 1920 – oil. If Azerbaijan had exported it, Russia would not have needed to take control of the city. There was some export in 1920, but the process had already begun and it was too late.”

Go to top

JAMnews journalist Shahin Rzayev

“We do not want to divide the world into small pieces,” is what the president of the US said during a meeting with an Azerbaijani delegation at the Paris Peace Conference where the victor-countries were deciding the fate of Europe after the end of the first World War. He continued:

“ ‘The issue of recognizing the independence of the Caucasian Republics may be looked at after the resolution of the ‘Russia issue’.

“The ‘great states’ believed that there are people who are ready for independence, such as Poland and Finland, and people, such as in Georgia and Azerbaijan, that were not so ready.

“Without international support, small Azerbaijan ended up face to face with Russia. The outcome of the confrontation was predetermined – it wouldn’t have mattered who was ruling Russia at the time.

“In addition, our Turkish brothers made a deal with Bolshevik Russia and they divided the Caucasus into spheres of influence.

“Turkey returned Batumi to Russia, which it had received in the Brest Peace Agreement, but it retained Kars. The only thing that Azerbaijan got from this agreement was autonomy of Nakhchivan ‘under the protectorate of Azerbaijan’.

“But when the Red Army took Baku, Tbilisi and Yerevan one right after the other, Turkey didn’t even bother to interfere.”

Go to top
Historian and leader of the Modern History of Armenia Research Centre, Mikle A. Babayan:

“The Republic of Armenia was destroyed because of the Kemalist-Bolshevik strikes against it, that is in consequence of their active external actions.

“Kemal’s Turkey and the Bolsheviks had their plans and agreed to act against Armenia. The military activities began almost simultaneously, the Bolsheviks entered Armenian territory at the end of November 1918. And before that they had already entered Zangezur, Karabakh and Nakchivan.

“In these conditions, an additional strike was the Armenian-Turkish war which began in the autumn of 1920. Armenia did not have the strength to fight on two fronts.

“Had it not been for Sovietisation, independent Armenia would have gone a different path. The republic’s government had already set goals for several years in advance. It had perspectives and possibilities and could have provided for consistent development.”

German soldiers film Tbilisi, circa 1918. Photo: WikiCommon.

Go to top

Historian and employee of the Georgian Research Lab on the Soviet Past, Irakli Khvadagiani:

“The first World War did not only stimulate the creation of the first Georgian republic, but it also, to a certain extent, was the reason for its collapse. The first world war changed the entire world order. The international community restored itself after the war and few were interested in the fate of the Caucasus. Georgia, unfortunately, was unlucky in this way: it was not in the spheres of interest of any large power, be it Britain or France. They didn’t see the Caucasus or Georgia as part of their sphere of influence.”

Go to top

The post What Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia did 102 years ago when they became independent republics appeared first on English Jamnews.

Continue Reading

World Nomad Games Moved To 2021 Due To Pandemic

Avatar

Published

on

World Nomad Games Moved To 2021 Due To Pandemic

Turkish authorities have moved the Fourth World Nomad Games to 2021 due to the coronavirus pandemic.
The games, an international competition dedicated to ethnic sports, were scheduled to be held in the Turkish city of Bursa in autumn this year.
The President of the Turkey-based World Ethnosport Confederation, Bilal Erdogan, said on July 9 that the decision was made after consultations with Turkey's Foreign Ministry, Ministry of Youth and Sports, and Health Ministry to prevent a surge in coronavirus cases.

Kyrgyzstan’s Hills Come Alive With The Sound Of Nomads
Photo Gallery:

Kyrgyzstan’s Hills Come Alive With The Sound Of Nomads

RFE/RL’s photographer was on hand to capture the hoof-thumping action as the mountain venue of Kyrgyzstan’s Nomad Games opened on September 3.

The World Nomad Games were initiated by Kyrgyzstan and held for the first time in the Central Asian nation in 2014.

The second and third World Nomad Games were also held in Kyrgyzstan's picturesque northern region of Issyk-Kul in 2016 and 2018.

The nomad games include horse racing, archery, mounted archery, falconry, and different types of wrestling, including wrestling from horseback.
The games have gained in popularity, prompting teams representing Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, the Philippines, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Russia, and even the United States to regularly attend the event.

The last World Nomad Games in 2018 hosted athletes from 66 countries, including several European nations, such as Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, France, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland, and Ukraine.
This year, for the first time, the games were scheduled to be held outside of Kyrgyzstan.

With reporting by Anadolu, TRT Haber, and Yeni Safak

Read Original Article here by RFERL

Continue Reading

“Autumn will be even worse” – journalist’s letter criticizing gov’t response to pandemic causes stir in Azerbaijan

Avatar

Published

on

TV presenter and blogger Azer Garib published an open letter on his Facebook page in which he accused the Azerbaijani authorities of taking an irresponsible attitude towards the coronavirus pandemic and criticised the deplorable state of the healthcare system.

Garib is indignant about the fact that the authorities are holding the public responsible for the continuing rise in coronavirus cases, saying that people simply aren’t complying with the quarantine requirements enough.

We’ve been under quarantine for four months, and we haven’t seen any progress.

People don’t believe the virus exists because they do not believe [the authorities].”

The post received a lot of support among the Azerbaijani population, and within a day, had received more than 16,000 likes and was re-published more than 8,000 times.

As of July 8, there are 21,374 reported coronavirus cases in Azerbaijan. Of these, 265 have died and 12,635 have recovered. For several months now, the country has been under an almost constant strict quarantine regime, with only a few breaks. Shopping centers are closed and the metro has stopped running. Public transport is shut down on the weekends, and most businesses are closed. One of the main restrictions is on movement. People are required to stay at home, and can only go out for two hours a day, and only after receiving special SMS permission from the authorities.

It will be worse in autumn

Azer Garib wrote the open letter in response to statements made at the most recent press briefing by representatives of TƏBİB, the official structure responsible for combating the coronavirus pandemic in Azerbaijan.

In particular, they reported that in other countries, and not just in Azerbaijan, the situation is deteriorating again and there is a rise in coronavirus cases. Therefore, the strict quarantine is justified. Moreover, it was reported that the situation may get even worse in the autumn.

What does this warning mean, that the situation will get worse? Then why are we suffering, what’s the point of the quarantine?” writes Azer Garib.

Scientists all over the world are literally shouting that people need vitamin D. And we, who live in a city by the sea, are locked in our homes. Yes, the doctors are right: in autumn, it will be even worse, because now, people are deprived of the sun, sea air, and don’t have the opportunity to strengthen their immune system, which will hurt them enormously in the autumn.”

“We want to eat!” Abkhaz react to delayed tourist season on social media

Masks, barriers, high prices: post-corona tourism in Georgia

Azerbaijani journalist blames doctors for untimely death of father

Garib asked the Coronavirus Operational Headquarters talk about other countries that were successful in combating the pandemic.

Why don’t you tell us about Georgia? Why don’t you tell us that Britain, which introduced quarantine later than other countries, has already lifted their strict quarantine? Why don’t you comment on the example of Belarus?”

Azer Garib said the quarantine regime that has been implemented in Azerbaijan for the last four months was like “a game of roulette.”

“Let’s close the subway. No, let’s open the subway. Let’s set up [police] posts. No, let’s remove the posts. Let people out of the house. No, lock people in their homes. Why has it been impossible to coordinate between the various government institutions over the past four months in order to develop a unified policy?” the journalist writes.

Doctors should educate the population. They must explain that even if you get sick with a coronavirus, this does not mean that you will die from it,” the journalist writes.

Instead of accusing people of not complying with quarantine, it is better to give them hope that the measures taken by the government will lead to an improvement in the situation, because then, they will adopt them, the letter says.

The post “Autumn will be even worse” – journalist’s letter criticizing gov’t response to pandemic causes stir in Azerbaijan appeared first on English Jamnews.

Continue Reading

Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials arrested in Azerbaijan for bribery, embezzlement – claim they were ‘helping ministry’

Avatar

Published

on

A number of high-ranking officials in the Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry have been arrested as a result of an anti-corruption operation.

Farhad Mollazade, chairman of the Foreign Ministry’s tender commission, Salim Alizadeh, head of economic affairs department, and Nurupasha Abdullayev, head of the legal section of the Consular Department, were arrested on July 3 for bribe taking, the State Security Service of Azerbaijan reports.

According to the State Security Service, Mollazade and Alizade are suspected of having appropriated money allocated for various structures in the Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry.

In addition, “when purchasing certain goods, the suspects demanded business owners transfer them a sum of the total amount in the form of a bribe.”

The houses of the suspects have been searched and documents found attesting to the bribes and the money received for their ‘work.’

A criminal case has been opened against Farhad Mollazade and Salim Alizadeh under the articles “abuse of official position”, “embezzlement” and “bribery”, while Nurupasha Abdullayev faces bribery charges.

The detainees have already confessed their crimes on camera. In a video circulated in the media, they spoke in detail about their actions.

Elkhan Шахahinoglu is a political scientist, head of the Atlas Research Center, writes on his Facebook page, quoting from Farhad Mollazade’s confessions:

“‘They gave money to Salim, and he brought the money to me. I kept 10 percent for myself and gave 10 percent to Salim. We spent the rest on solving the problems of the ministry.’

“This is the statement by Farhad Mollazade, Head of Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who was caught taking bribes. The last sentence means that the Foreign Ministry, it turns out, was solving its problems through bribes. Wow! What is going on in the ministry that represents Azerbaijan in the world? And instead of resigning, Elmar Mammadyarov [ed. the head of the Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry] is holding an online conference today with some European organization.”

The post Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials arrested in Azerbaijan for bribery, embezzlement – claim they were ‘helping ministry’ appeared first on English Jamnews.

Continue Reading

Facebook

3 days ago

World Nomad Games Moved To 2021 Due To Pandemic

4 days ago

“Autumn will be even worse” – journalist’s letter criticizing gov’t response to pandemic causes stir in Azerbaijan

5 days ago

Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials arrested in Azerbaijan for bribery, embezzlement – claim they were ‘helping ministry’

1 week ago

Women in politics, army without the coronavirus, summer without tourists – “Past week in the Caucasus” from JAMnews, video

1 week ago

Surveillance cameras brought in to monitor quarantine regs in Baku

1 week ago

Azerbaijan’s economy before and after the pandemic – what to expect and what to be afraid of? Interview with economist

1 week ago

Kura River in Azerbaijan so shallow that the bottom is visible. Who’s to blame – farmers or the gov’t?

2 weeks ago

Life on the Armenian-Azerbaijani border from Soviet times to the present day

2 weeks ago

Armenia: Limited access to education – the unseen consequence of conflict

2 weeks ago

Azerbaijani police force social media users to apologize on camera for criticising police PR stunt

2 weeks ago

Online negotiations: Armenian and Azerbaijani FMs talk Karabakh

2 weeks ago

Azerbaijan expedites process of returning citizens stuck on the Dagestan border

2 weeks ago

Penalty for non-compliance with quarantine rules in Azerbaijan doubled – now it’s $117

2 weeks ago

Coronavirus in the Caucasus. Sick, dead, recovered – Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia

2 weeks ago

Azerbaijani Journalist Convicted Of Hooliganism In ‘Trumped-Up’ Case

Trending