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Scientists unravel mystery of sex disparities in COVID-19 outcomes

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Scientists at Yale University found out that why men are 1.7 times more likely to die from the virus than women, Report informs, citing RIA Novosti.

One of the first explanations, researchers say, comes from basic biology. Women have two X chromosomes, and men have one. X chromosomes are vital because they are rich in genes that regulate an immune response. While one of those X chromosomes in women is silenced, in some cases, critical genes from both X chromosomes can activate the innate immune system. This early alarm system detects pathogens. Essentially, women have resistant system reinforcements they can call upon early in infections than men, with their single X chromosomes, don’t possess.

Sex hormones also play critical roles in susceptibility to bad outcomes; research has shown. In a mouse model of SARS-CoV infection, higher mortality in male mice was observed and attributed to the protective roles of the female sex hormone estrogen. The presence of estrogen can help suppress ACE 2, a receptor on the surface of many cells used by SARS-CoV-2 to enter cells. Conversely, the male hormone androgen appears to enhance the ability of the virus to infect cells. A study found that men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer seem to be less susceptible to infection by the COVID-19 virus.

Moreover, age amplifies and sometimes sabotages a man’s immune response to COVID-19 infection. As men in their early 60s begin to lose their ability to mount an initial immune response to the novel coronavirus, there is often a compensatory overreaction by other immune system molecules that can damage inflammation, scientists found. These inflammatory factors can trigger the so-called “cytokine storm,” which can lead to severe damage to lungs and other tissue, a hallmark of severe COVID-19 cases.

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Another Azerbaijani judoka wins medal

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Azerbaijani judoka Mammadali Mehdiyev (90 kg) won a bronze medal at the Grand Slam tournament in Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Report informs that the 28-year-old athlete defeated Uzbekistan's Shermuhammad Jandreev in the match for third place.

Mehdiyev's medal is Azerbaijan's second in the Tashkent Grand Slam. On March 6, Rustam Orucov (73 kg) also won a bronze medal for Azerbaijan.

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Oncologist reveals alarming symptoms of tongue cancer

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Neoplasms, cracks, and bruising in the mouth may indicate the development of tongue cancer, Report informs, citing Russian oncologist Mikhail Myasnyankin.

According to the specialist, the first signs of oncology appear as cracks in the mucous membrane of the tongue and pain around them. Bad breath and bleeding appear in the later stages.

“The main risk factors for developing tongue cancer include smoking, especially along with strong alcohol, chewing various mixtures, and background diseases,” Myasnyankin said.

He also noted that sometimes poor-quality prostheses are the cause of oncology.

“With this type of cancer, people might find it difficult to speak clearly and even eat independently. In such a case, it is necessary to consult a doctor at the first symptoms,” the specialist advised.

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Footage from liberated Suma village of Azerbaijan’s Aghdam district

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The Azerbaijani Defense Ministry has prepared video footage from the village of Suma in Azerbaijan's Aghdam district liberated from the Armenian occupation.

Report presents the footage below:

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